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Monitor rainfall and adjust automatic sprinklers accordingly. If rainfall is adequate, warm-season grasses require no supplemental irrigation.

Spray stone-fruit, apple, pear and nut trees, flowering trees and roses with dormant oil spray. Now that the soil is cool and damp, sow seeds of spring wildflowers such as California poppy, clarkia and cornflower.


Remove leaves from roses to force them into dormancy in preparation for pruning next month.

Prune out fire blight infections. Cut the infected shoot or branch at its point of origin.


Fertilize cool-season annuals, perennials and vegetables with a light, high-nitrogen or organic fertilizer.


This is not a big planting month unless you have purchased plants or bulbs and have not yet planted them.

Fruits and vegetables: radishes, spinach, plant from seed.

Trees, shrubs, vines: pluot, plum, cherry (Prunus).

Annuals: forget-me-not (Myosotis), Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule), fairy primrose

(Primula malacoides).

Enjoy now:

Annuals and perennials: stock (Matthiola), Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule).

Bulbs, corms, tubers: paperwhite (Narcissus).

Trees, shrubs, vines: heavenly bamboo (Nandina) ginkgo biloba.

Fruits and vegetables: potatoes, snow peas.

Things to ponder:

Be alert for frost warnings and cover tender plants when freezing temperatures are expected. Apply a layer of mulch to protect roots of vulnerable plants.

Amaryllis bulbs will bloom indoors and may do well planted outside with some shade and rich, well-drained soil.

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